Grape, Scientific name: (vinifera) is a genus of the family Vitaceae’s trees. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange and pink. “White” grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a spheroid.
Grapes can be eaten fresh as fruit or can be used for making wine, jam, grape juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.
The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine. The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine.
Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes both for eating and wine production. The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, Massachusetts, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labruscavines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States.
Top 12 Health Benefits of Eating Grapes
Grapes have been cultivated for thousands of years and have been revered by several ancient civilizations for their use in winemaking.
There are many types of grapes including green, red, black, yellow and pink. They grow in clusters and come in seeded and seedless varieties.
Grapes are grown in temperate climates across the world, including Southern Europe, Africa, Australia and North and South America. The majority of grapes grown in the US are from California.
Grapes offer a wealth of health benefits due to their high nutrient and antioxidant contents. Here are the top 12 health benefits of eating grapes.
Packed with nutrients, especially vitamins C and K
Grapes are high in several important nutrients. One cup (151 grams) of red or green grapes contains the following nutrients:
- Calories: 104
- Carbs: 27.3 grams
- Protein: 1.1 grams
- Fat: 0.2 grams
- Fiber: 1.4 grams
- Vitamin C: 27% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI)
- Vitamin K: 28% of the RDI
- Thiamine: 7% of the RDI
- Riboflavin: 6% of the RDI
- Vitamin B6: 6% of the RDI
- Potassium: 8% of the RDI
- Copper: 10% of the RDI
- Manganese: 5% of the RDI
One cup (151 grams) of grapes provides more than a quarter of the RDI for vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin vital for blood clotting and healthy bones .
They’re also a good source of vitamin C, an essential nutrient and powerful antioxidant necessary for connective tissue health.
high antioxidant contents may prevent chronic diseases
Antioxidants are compounds found in plants, for example. They help repair the damage to your cells caused by free radicals, which are harmful molecules that cause oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress has been associated with several chronic diseases including diabetes, cancer and heart disease.
Grapes are high in a number of powerful antioxidant compounds. In fact, over 1,600 beneficial plant compounds have been identified in this fruit.
Red grapes contain higher numbers of antioxidants due to the anthocyanins that give them their color.
Plant compounds may protect against certain types of cancer
Grapes contain high levels of beneficial plant compounds, which may help protect against certain types of cancer, such as resveratrol, that may protect against various types of cancer, including colon cancer and breast cancer.
Beneficial for Heart Health in Various Impressive Ways
There are several reasons why eating grapes is good for your heart.
May Help Lower Blood Pressure
One cup (151 grams) of grapes contains 288 mg of potassium, which is 6% of the RDI. This mineral is necessary for maintaining healthy blood pressure levels. A study in 12,267 adults showed that people who consumed higher levels of potassium in relation to sodium were less likely to die from heart diseases than those who consumed less potassium.
May Help Reduce Cholesterol
Compounds found in grapes may help protect against high cholesterol levels by decreasing cholesterol absorption.
In one study in 69 people with high cholesterol, eating three cups (500 grams) of red grapes a day for eight weeks was shown to lower total and “bad” LDL cholesterol. Additionally, diets high in resveratrol, such as the Mediterranean diet, have been shown to decrease cholesterol levels as well.
Contain Several Compounds That Benefit Eye Health
The plant chemicals found in grapes may protect against common eye diseases.
In a test-tube study, resveratrol was found to protect retinal cells in the human eye from ultraviolet A light. This may lower the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common eye disease.
According to a review study, resveratrol may also help protect against glaucoma, cataract and diabetic eye disease. Additionally, grapes contain the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin. Several studies have demonstrated that these compounds help protect the eyes from damage from blue light.
May Improve Memory, Attention and Mood
Eating grapes may benefit your brain health and boost your memory.
In a 12- week study in 111 healthy older adults, 250 mg of a grape supplement per day significantly improved scores on a cognitive test measuring attention, memory and language compared to baseline values. Another study in healthy young adults showed that drinking about 8 ounces (230 ml) of grape juice improved both the speed of memory-related skills and mood 20 minutes after consumption.
Contain Many Nutrients Important for Bone Health
Grapes contain many nutrients important for bone health, including calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin K. Studies in rats have shown that grapes may have protective effects on bones, but human studies are needed to confirm these benefits.
May Protect Against Certain Bacteria, Viruses and Yeast Infections
Numerous compounds in grapes have been shown to protect against and fight bacterial and viral infections.
Grapes are a good source of vitamin C, which is well known for its beneficial impact on your immune system.
Grape skin extract has been shown to protect against the flu virus in test-tube studies.
Additionally, compounds in grapes stopped the herpes virus, chicken pox and yeast infections from spreading in test-tube studies. Resveratrol may also protect against foodborne illnesses. When added to different types of food, it was shown to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria, such as E. Coli.
May Prevent Chronic Diseases by Decreasing Inflammation
Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the development of chronic diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and autoimmune diseases, to name just a few. Resveratrol has been linked to powerful anti-inflammatory properties, which may protect against certain heart and bowel diseases.
Grapes in our country have different varieties in terms of some characteristics such as color, shape and size of berries, cluster size and amount of grape sugar.
These grapes are rareripe, red with small berries and dense clusters, which are mostly consumed fresh. Due to its rareripe, it is almost the first grape to enter the market.
Raisin grapes (Seedless Grapes)
This type of grape is abundant in Iran and is available in two colors: yellowish white and red. This is one of the best grapes, which is suitable for both fresh consumption and preparation of grape juice and raisins.
Shani or Shahani (Soltani) grapes
It is found in most parts of Iran and is available in two colors: white and dark red. Suitable for freshness and currant preparation. The berries of this type of grape have thick skin and for this reason the Shani grapes can be kept for some time. This grape has round, coarse-grained and dark-colored appearance and is grown in both seeded and seedless forms. The skin of the grape is thick and its stems are brown, indicating full growth of the grape and can be used for pickle and vinegar applications.
The grape is juicy and meaty with large berries. The berries of this grape have seeds and its length is about 3 cm. This type of grape is called various names in different parts of the country. This grape is mostly consumed fresh.
Asgari Grape is one of the grape varieties in Iran that Zarghan and Mamasani cities of Fars province have the highest cultivated area. Asgari grapes are used for fresh eating and raisin preparation, have elongated and white berries that are more rareripe than other varieties and have short-term maintenance. Traditionally, Asgari grapes are warmer in nature. It is interesting to know that grapes can be considered as a wonderful and rich collection of useful therapeutic properties especially against cancer and it should be said that grapes are the only fruit whose compounds are very similar to breast milk.
Razeghi grapes is one of the numerous varieties of grapes in Iran. This grape has elongated clusters, large and juicy berries, and the thick skin. Razeghi grapes are grown in Khorasan and Shiraz, which differ in color. Razeghi grape is white in Shiraz and red in Khorasan. This type of grapes has warm and wet nature and its grains have cold and dry nature, they are very useful for treating gastritis and gut.
It is a rareripe grape, oval berries are light green in color and this grape is mostly consumed fresh.
Its cluster has round berry by size of a hazelnut. The berry of this grapes are juicy and low-seeded. It is usually used in the preparation of grape juice.
Properties of black grapes
- Skin Care
Due to high levels of resveratrol and other antioxidants in black grapes, this fruit is one of the best food for skin protection. In fact, antioxidants found in black grapes can inhibit the activity of free radicals, slow down the aging process of the skin, and improve skin elasticity.
- Hair Strengthening
Studies have shown that black grapes are useful in strengthening hair and relieving head inflammation due to its high amounts of antioxidants and minerals.
- Treatment of diabetes
Grapes have a surprisingly low glycemic index, which means that eating this fruit has no serious effect on blood sugar level.
- Improving heart health
Resveratrol in black grapes brings another property to this fruit, which is to improve heart health. Resveratrol appears to prevent cholesterol from being oxidized and thus improve heart health.
- Treatment of chronic diseases
The antioxidants found in black grapes counteract the activity of free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of cancer.
- Strengthening the immune system
Black grapes, due to their high levels of vitamin C, can strengthen the immune system and increase the level of white blood cells.
World production of grapes
This is a list of countries by grape production in 2017, based on data from the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. The estimated total world production for grapes in 2017 was 74,276,583 metric tons. China was the largest producer of grapes, accounting for 16.8% of global production. Iran has the twelfth place in the world as a producer of grapes.
Iran exports its varieties of fresh and dried grapes to more than 80 countries.
Last year, most of the exports of this fruit came from raisins. Iraq, Russia and the United Arab Emirates had the largest imports of raisins from Iran.
It is also interesting to know that Malayer is considered one of the largest poles of grapes and raisins in the country. Malayer Raisin has a worldwide reputation. It is noteworthy that our company “kala Sepid Tarabar” as an international transportation & trading company has experienced and professional staff members in all matters related to any shipment (road – rail – sea-air and multi modal freight), so has always been able to serve the interests of its customers to purchase and export cargoes to all over the world as fast as possible as a strong advisor by choosing the best route and method of transport and positioning The global marketplace.