Citrus sinensis is the scientific name of the ORANGE tree with a height of about 10 meters.
The leaves of this tree are green and the flowers are white. The color of this fruit is orange and the flavors are sweet and sour depending on the variety, and the orange’s flesh is yellow or red. Oranges are one of the oldest fruits used by humans.
One medium orange (approximately 154 grams) contains 80 calories, 0 grams of fat, 250 milligrams of potassium, 19 grams of carbohydrate (14 grams of sugar and 3 grams of dietary fiber) as well as 1 gram of protein.
One orange provides 130 percent of your vitamin C needs for the day, 2 percent of vitamin A needs and 6 percent of calcium.
Health benefits of oranges
- Immune system booster
No doubt you know that oranges are a source of vitamin C. But do you know what a huge impact vitamin C and oranges have on our health?
Vitamin C is a very powerful and important antioxidant that eliminates free radicals. Unfortunately, the damage that free radicals cause to cells and DNA can lead to cancer. Instead, a high intake of vitamin C reduces the risk of these cancers, such as colon cancer.
In addition, Vitamin C prevents inflammation from free radicals in the body. It can, therefore, reduce the severity of inflammatory diseases such as asthma, arthritis and rheumatism.
Free radicals also oxidize blood cholesterol. In this case, cholesterol attaches to the lining of blood vessels and eventually block the vessels. Unfortunately, when this happens, a heart attack or stroke is unavoidable. Since vitamin C is able to counteract the negative effects of free radicals, it can also prevent the oxidation of cholesterol and stroke and heart attack.
According to American research, consumption of a unit citrus a day reduces the risk of stroke by 19 percent.
Chemically, oranges are considered a rich source of vitamin C. Experts at the American National Cancer Institute believe that gastric cancer cases in the United States are relatively low, because oranges are available all months long and are consumed by most people.
According to a study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, consuming bananas, oranges and orange juice in the first two years of life may reduce the risk of developing childhood leukemia.
- blood pressure
People with high blood pressure who take the drug to control it are likely to have lowered their potassium levels (3.5 to 5.5) due to the use of antihypertensive drugs. These patients should always consume high-potassium foods in their daily diet. Orange juice is high in potassium, and in a large glass of orange juice there is about 350 mg of potassium.
Yellow fruits such as bananas, citrus fruits, apricots, peaches, grapes, dates and melons also contain high potassium, but orange juice is more suitable because its less calories. High-calorie foods are not suitable for people with hypertension.
People with diabetes are advised to take an orange daily to control their blood sugar. But eating orange juice is not recommended because it lacks sufficient fiber.
The antioxidant vitamin C, when eaten in its natural form (as in an orange) or applied topically, can help to fight skin damage caused by the sun and pollution, reduce wrinkles and improve overall skin texture. Vitamin C plays a vital role in the formation of collagen, the support system of your skin.
Orange varieties in Iran
- Washington Navel
All of the Washington Group varieties are fleshy and large, the weight of each fruit reaches 500 grams and is not less than 200 grams. It cannot be produced in south of Iran because it is sensitive to heat and drought.
- Thompson Navel
One of the selected varieties for the humid region of northern Iran and is known as the Palestinian orange. Thomson Novel’s fruit is relatively small, conical with thinner skin, compared to Washington’s orange. Its skin color is slightly lighter than that of Washington Novel.
- Frost Navel
It is suitable for north of Iran. Compared to Washington Novel, its acid content is high and its fruit is smaller, but its flesh is crisp and juicy and more delicious.
- Washington Bloody Moro
This orange is known in the north of Iran as Bloody Thomson. Washington orange is fleshy and large in size and its flesh is red when it is completely ripe.
The seed was brought from Florida, USA, to the Ramsar Citrus Research Station in 1968. It is a tasty, fragrant, seedless and very productive variety.
In 1971 was entered Iran from Texas. Its acid content is low and favorable to Iranian tastes.
This cultivar is native to Spain. The orange is almost round and slightly dipped at the end, fleshy and without seeds, with a pleasant taste and aroma, juicy and sweet. One of the suitable cultivars for north and south of Iran.
The shape of the fruit is round and oval, with a small groove at the end. The shape of this tree resembles pineapple and has compact branches at the end that resemble pineapple. This cultivar is one of the recognizable varieties in northern Iran.
- Parson brown
This orange is round with narrow grooves at the bottom of the fruit, similar in color to the local oranges when ripe.
Its flesh is firm and juicy when it comes to full ripeness.
This cultivar is suitable for the north and south of the country and is one of the most suitable cultivars for producing orange juice.
Its fruit is medium, seedless, fleshy and fragrant, and is suitable for the southern regions of the country, especially in Kerman and Khuzestan.
- Old Valencia
It has medium-sized fruits, no seeds, fleshy and juicy and has a relatively smooth, fragrant skin. It has a high growth and its fruit is known in Iran as summer oranges.
- Local orange / Siavaraze
It is one of the oldest local varieties that was taken from north to south. Often cultivated in the east of Gilan and west of Mazandaran.
Iran by producing nearly 3 million tons of oranges per year is the seventh country in the world. Mazandaran Province, as the main citrus producer of high-quality citrus and oranges in Iran, has been dubbed the Iranian capital of orange.
more than 20 countries are buying Iranian oranges, for example Germany, Switzerland, Canada, Qatar, Chile, Jordan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, etc.
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